LEDs – References


The author would specifically like to thank Kevin Youngberg for his technical expertise, William Bridges for his loving support, and Baby Bridges (due 1 March 2014) for her patience and understanding.  The author would also like to thank all the members of the Wasatch Marine Aquarium Society (WMAS), Nano-Reef.com, Reddit.com, and Reef Central for their support and contribution to this project.  Additionally, the author appreciates the effort of the individuals listed below, along with all the anonymous contributions.  Lastly, the author thanks the University of Dayton, the Engineering Department, everyone in ENM 505/595/590 for their support, and especially Dr. Doty for his instruction.

Special thanks (in no particular order):

Anne Aldredge (Ann_A of WMAS)

Jackie Stuver (bstuver of WMAS)

Will Spencer (of WMAS)

Mr. Gray (Mr. Gray of WMAS)

Chris Rogers (chris.rogers of WMAS)

Shelby Kurys (lskurys of WMAS)


Arthur Marshall


Kelley Ballard (aceofspadeskb of WMAS)




TheKleinReef (of Nano-Reef.com)

Johnny Heavens (johnnyheavens of WMAS)








Reefnfeef (of WMAS)

Phxreefer (of Reef Central)

Ron Reefman (of Reef Central)

Tom BartellAjkochev (of WMAS)




MondoBongo (of Reef Central)



jbfloor (of Reef Central)


Erikts (of WMAS)

Porkfish66 (of Reddit.com)

Dunc101 (of Nano-Reef.com)

Jeff Stephenson (Krazie4Acans of WMAS)

Anonymous #1-46

Anyone else not listed…

Literature Review

Although many sources were used for research, the majority of information came from Advanced Aquarist, an online magazine specializing in innovative marine husbandry topics.  This is due to the limited research available on coral photosynthesis.  Dana Riddle, of Riddle Laboratories, is the most predominant author and researcher in the field.  This does present a potential bias, but at this time, there is no known contrasting data.

Other sources, such as Methods of Cell Biology, Biology Bulletin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and the Marine Ecology Progress Series, were used to determine and confirm applicable coral fluorescent and pigment excitation/emission spectra.  Methods of Cell Biology is an ongoing book series in publication for over thirty years that has renowned editors from the University of California and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  Biology Bulletin is a scientific journal that covers fundamental studies in general biology, proceedings from scientific conferences, and new books.  The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences is another scientific journal in publication since 1914.  Its publications cover biological, physical, and social sciences, and its articles are peer-reviewed.  The Marine Ecology Progress Series covers life in the oceans and coastal waters and is peer-reviewed.

Several online forums, aquarium hobbyists, and electronics hobbyists were consulted as well to cover emerging techniques not yet formally documented or peer-reviewed.  These sources are not as reliable as the peer-reviewed journals and books, but they are the best sources available at this time in their respective areas.


  1. Blundell, Adam, “Lateral Lines:  The Seen and Unseen World of Coral Fluorescence,” Advanced Aquarist, February 2005.
  2.  Bridges, Nicole, personal interview, July 2013.
  3. “Complete Reef Care Program,” Red Sea, http://www.redseafish.com/uploadimages/Products%20brochures/RCP%20Brochure/99251%20RCP%20Brochure%20Eng%20A2011%204W.pdf, accessed November 2013.
  4. Cubitt, A. H., Wollenweber, L. A., and Hein, R., “Understanding structure-function relationships in the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein,” Methods in Cell Biology, 1999.
  5. “EcoSmart Modes,” EcoTech Marine, http://ecotechmarine.com/ecosmart/vortech-ecosmart-driver/ecosmart-modes/, accessed 1 August 2013.
  6. Feldman, Ken, Sanjay Joshi, Lauren Vernese, et al, “Feature Article:  Coral Coloration and Incident Light:  A Photographic Essay,” Advanced Aquarist, March 2008.
  7. Finet, Benoît, Florian Lesage, Nicolas Will, “Feature Article:  Colors by the Thousands – Light, Colors and Corals, Part I,” Advanced Aquarist, December 2005.
  8. Gruber, David, Kao Hung-teh, Stephen Janoschka, et al, “Patterns of Protein Expression in Scleractinian Corals,” Biology Bulletin, 215:  143-154, October 2008.
  9. Heim, R., Prasher, D. C., and Tsien, R. Y., “Wavelength mutations and post-translational autoxidation of green fluorescent protein,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1994.
  10. Holmes-Farley, Randy, “An Improved Do-it-Yourself Two-Part Calcium and Alkalinity Supplement System,” Reefkeeping Magazine, February 2006.
  11. Joshi, Sanjay, “Feature Article:  Spectral Distributions of LEDs:  AI-Sol, Radion, Orphek, EcoRay, Mvava,” Advanced Aquarist, March 2012.
  12. Karpenko, Dmitry, Vahe Ganapetyan, “Feature Article, Light in the Reef Aquaria,” Advanced Aquarist, October 2012.
  13. Maritorena, Stephane, Nathalie Guillocheau, “Optical properties of water and spectral light absorption by living and non-living particles and by yellow substances in coral reef waters of French Polynesia,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol 131: 245-255, February 1996.
  14. Nakamura, T., R. van Woesik, H. Yamasaki, “Photoinhibition of photosynthesis is reduced by water flow in the reef-building coral Acropora digitifera,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol 301:  109-118, October 2005.
  15. Riddle, Dana, “Aquarium Corals:  Making Corals Colorful:  New Information on Acropora Species,” Advanced Aquarist, December 2012.
  16. Riddle, Dana, “Aquarium Lighting:  Moonlight – A Concise Review of its Spectrum, Intensity, Photoperiod, and Relationship to Coral and Fish Spawning,” Advanced Aquarist, July 2012.
  17. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  A Different Look at Lighting:  Effects of Prolonged Photoperiod, Spectral Quality, and Light Dosage,” Advanced Aquarist, May 2005.
  18. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  An Update on Zooxanthallae (Symbiodinium spp.) What a Difference a Year Makes!” Advanced Aquarist, April 2007.
  19. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  Coral Coloration, Part 4:  Red Fluorescent Pigments, a Preliminary Report of Effects of Various Environmental Factors and Color Mixing,” Advanced Aquarist, February 2007.
  20. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  Coral Coloration, Part 6:  Non-fluorescent Chromoproteins (CP-568 – CP-610) and a Newly Discovered Colorant,” Advanced Aquarist, July 2007.
  21. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  Coral Coloration – Part 7:  Coral Reflectance, Chromoproteins and Environmental Factors Affecting Non-fluorescent Pigmentation,” Advanced Aquarist, October 2007.
  22. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  Coral Coloration, Part 8:  Blue and Green Coral Fluorescence:  Environmental Factors Affecting Fluorescent Pigmentation,” Advanced Aquarist, November 2007.
  23. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article, Coral Coloration, Part 9:  Tridacna and Other Photosynthetic Clam Coloration, With Observations on Possible Functions,” Advanced Aquarist, January 2008.
  24. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  Effects of Narrow Bandwidth Light Sources on Coral Host and Zooxanthallae Pigments,” Advanced Aquarist, November 2003.
  25. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  Getting Really Up to Date on Zooxanthallae (Symbiodinium spp.),” Advanced Aquarist, April 2011.
  26. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  How Much Light?!  Analyses of Selected Shallow Water Invertebrates’ Light Requirements,” Advanced Aquarist, March 2007.
  27. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  How to Make Corals more Colorful, Part 3 – New Information:  Red Fluorescent Pigments:  DsRed-type,” Advanced Aquarist, April 2009.
  28. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  How to Make Corals more Colorful, Part Two – New Information!  Green Fluorescent Pigments, Pigment Clades, and Photoconversion from Green to Orange/Red,” Advanced Aquarist, February 2009.
  29. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  Lighting by Number:  “Types of Zooxanthallae and What They Tell Us,” Advanced Aquarist, January 2006.
  30. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  PAM Fluorometer Experiments:  Part I:  Effects of Metal Halide Lamp Spectral Qualities on Zooxanthallae Photosynthesis in Photoacclimated Fungia Corals:  The Red Light Theory and Part II:  Effects of Water Motion on Zooxanthallae Photosynthesis,” Advanced Aquarist, June 2004.
  31. Riddle, Dana, “Feature Article:  Playing with Poison – Ultraviolet Radiation,” Advanced Aquarist, August 2004.
  32. Smok, Marcin, “DIY Guide:  Dimming DIY LED lights with Neptune Systems Apex Controller,” www.reefs.com, December 2012.
  33. Sullivan, Kevin E., Green Fluorescent Proteins, Academic Press, 1999.
  34. Wijgerde, Tim, Michaël Laterveer, “Feature Article:  Coral Growth under Light Emitting Diode and Light Emitting Plasma:  a Cross-Family Comparison,” Advanced Aquarist, February 2013.
  35. Youngberg, Kevin, Personal Interview, July 2013.


The views and opinions expressed or implied in this paper are those of the author and should not be construed as carrying the official sanction of the University of Dayton, the Engineering Department, or of individuals/groups mentioned in this paper.  This project is for informational purposes only, and it should not be used replace proper electrical engineering training before attempting such a project.  Any projects arising from this paper are at the reader’s own risk.  Additionally, this report and analysis shall not be used for commercial and/or profit without the author’s explicit written permission and any permission required from the University of Dayton.

3 pings

  1. LEDs – The Introduction (Part I) » Reef'd Up Aquatics

    […] « LEDs – References […]

  2. LEDs – Data Collection (Part III) » Reef'd Up Aquatics


  3. LEDs – Analysis and Results (Part V) » Reef'd Up Aquatics


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